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4D printed submarines, no electricity no oil can swiping
Jun 08, 2018

Have you ever thought of a submarine, in the case of no electricity no fuel consumption, also can be moved?4D print unexpectedly let this become a reality, this is a completely made of plastic submarine, 7.5 cm long, can forward rowing, delivery of the goods, and return to base, all of which no engine, propellant or power supply.



To materials science, computing and engineering together, created a feat, is by the kristina shea professor with researchers at the California institute of technology.Exactly how the submarine campaign?

It adopts the concept of 4D printing, first for 3D printing object programming, so that the plastic on the thermal response into different shapes, which is converted into the movement of the submarine.Miniature submarine design is a complex thermal activated actuators, depends on the activation of three separate actuator group.

In each set of blades and a fixed on the top of the holder, the submarine's 4 d print actuators is programmed to adapt to the change of water temperature.: in the first stroke expansion occurs, actuators, drives the connection of the slurry lines.A second group of paddle on the actuators are thicker than the oar in the first group, which means that the actuator plastic need longer time to heating, expansion and stroke.

The submarine's swimming process is similar to our muscles expand and contract to produce movement.For now, however, the submarine each actuator can only perform a stroke/actions, if you want multiple exercise submarines need to reset.

In the end, the team will be able to create a complex series of multiple 4 d print drive, in order to make further activity of submarine in the water.Researchers also hopes to expand the research scope, to other environmental factors (such as water salinity or acidity) response of material is also included.

Research progress before the 4D print what?

Bring the typical structure of 4D print, but deformation under thermal stimulation, by the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) was developed


The Georgia institute of technology (GT) recently demonstrated they develop a new 4D type structure.As shown in pictures, their original is in a state of "up", but as after immersed in hot water will be gradually expanded, eventually become another appearance.


Professor is also Kristina Shea's research results: the structure of 4D print is they use more than a material made in 3D printers.Among them, the white part of a rigid polymer material, the black part of the material is a kind of elastic polymer.This kind of elastic polymer thermal deformation will happen, which is the key to the structure deformation.


Reprinted from:3 dprintingindustry

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