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Low cost housing peat and shale ash base material can be used 3D printing
Jul 18, 2018

And Estonia life sciences at the university of tartu university scientists use peat and oil shale ash is a kind of building materials, can cut the cost of construction of private houses nearly 10 times.Its purpose is to create a kind of based on local natural resources and waste from the support of building materials, can be used to directly in the construction site for up to two storey height of 3D printing houses.

In the determination of humic acid and fulvic acid content in peat and elements and minerals by XRD analysis, the possible test mixture modeling and print the small test piece.Above: Toomas Tenno are showing the test piece.

According to Estonia wetland association, about 22% of the area of wetland covers Estonia, but only a third of peat used as peat sediment.Estonia is another important cause of oil shale ash - estimates that every year to produce 7 million tons of oil shale ash (7.7 million tons), only 5% could be reused.

"So far, there is no production of peat compound material as building materials, because of peat can prevent many material hardening.In our project, we managed to overcome this problem, "the university of tartu Juri Liiv said.

Oil shale ash is classified as hazardous waste, because it is in contact with the water became very alkaline (pH value close to 13).However, with the pH of the ash content is most suitable for building materials.Development of the material is completely harmless and safe for the environment.

Scientists from tartu developed a 3D printing concrete materials, mainly made by grinding of peat, oil shale ash as adhesive.

In the process of test, the scientists found a way to shorten coagulation time from about 30 days to one day of the solution.If the hole solution pH value less than 9, the hardening.By potassium hydroxide and alkali metal found in oil shale ash combined with insoluble compounds, can be very high pH to solve the problem.Oil shale ash in peat and humic acid reaction and absorb carbon dioxide.Due to chemical reactions, adhesive into ordinary concrete and limestone.In addition, the nano silica or fumes, nano additives are added to the peat and shale ash to improve its properties.

"Because the particles are very small, they dissolve well and evenly distributed in the whole material.Silicon smoke significantly improved the quality of this material, colloid and environmental chemistry at the university of tartu President Toomas Tenno professor said.

To find the right mixture takes about a year to get strong and has high thermal conductivity of materials.After the final hardening, the material is solid, lightweight, durable and has a low heat transfer rate.Although the peat is also used as the fuel, it is a non combustible.Peat is used as a filler in order to obtain excellent thermal performance - development of peat material in 24 hours to reach its initial hardness, but after a period of time to maintain flexibility.The whole structure becomes airtight and does not increase any wind protection, and it can also stop the sound well.

Because of peat and oil shale ash is very cheap, scientists calculate the 3D printing houses the shell (100-150 square metre) need to spend about 5000 euros, about one over ten the cost of traditional frame shell.

The team is currently studying a way to make it easier for materials to print.A paper on the study, published recently in the journal sustainable materials and technology.

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